Workplace Approved CPR and AED Courses, Training and Re-Certification. Call Toll Free: 1-888-870-7002
Header

Treating Meningitis

September 26th, 2015 | Posted by Jean Alfonso in Uncategorized - (0 Comments)

Overview

Meningitis is an infection of the membranes that border the brain and the spinal cord. Meningitis can be caused by germs or an infection. Anybody can get meningitis, whatever age they are, but children and young kids under five are most at risk.

Meningitis can be very serious. If you think it might be meningitis you must phone for medical assistance straight away, so they can be treated as quick as possible. If noticed early, and treated quickly, most individuals make a complete recovery.

What To Look For – Meningitis

Meningitis is an infection of the membranes that border the brain and the spinal cord.

Meningitis is an infection of the membranes that border the brain and the spinal cord.

If somebody has meningitis, they won’t generally show all the indications and signs at the same time. But these are the important things to look for:

  • Flu-like sickness with a temperature
  • Cold feet and hands
  • Joint and limb pain
  • Blemished or very pale skin

As the meningitis infection develops:

  • Consistent headache
  • Neck problems
  • Nausea
  • Eyes become sensitive when exposed to the light
  • Sleepiness

Later you might see a distinct rash of red or purple spots that doesn’t disappear when pressed.

Steps To Take – Meningitis

  • If somebody has any of the signs of meningitis, like guarding their eyes from the light, phone for emergency assistance immediately and treat the fever.
  • Look to see if they have a rash. With most rashes if you compress the spots with the side of a glass, the spots will disappear – if they don’t disappear, phone for medical assistance.
  • While you’re waiting for the ambulance to arrive, comfort the person and keep them cool.
  • Keep inspecting their breathing, pulse and level of reaction.

Related Video On Meningitis

First Aid For A Burn Or Scald

September 26th, 2015 | Posted by Jean Alfonso in Uncategorized - (0 Comments)

Overview

Burns and scalds are caused by damage to the skin caused by intense heat. A burn is generally caused by dry heat, like a hot iron, fire, or the sun. A scald is initiated by wet heat, like a hot cup of coffee or steam

You must be extra cautious when handling burns. The longer the burning carries on, the more serious the injury will be, and the longer it might take to fully heal. So you must cool the burn immediately.

If somebody has a serious burn or scald they are expected to suffer from shock, due of the loss of fluid, so they will require urgent hospital care.

What To Search For

Burns and scalds are caused by damage to the skin caused by intense heat.

Burns and scalds are caused by damage to the skin caused by intense heat.

If you think somebody has a burn or scald, there are five important signs to look for:

  1. Red skin
  2. Inflammation
  3. Blisters might form on the skin later on
  4. The skin might peel
  5. The skin might be white or charred

What You Need To Do

Stop the burning from getting worse, by moving the victim away from the cause of the heat. Begin cooling the burn as soon as you can. Place it under cool water for about ten minutes or until the aching has subsided. (Don’t use gels, creams or ice – they can harm tissues and increase the possibility of infection).

Evaluate how severe the burn is. It is serious if it is:

  • Bigger than the size of the victim’s hand
  • On the face, feet or hands, or
  • A deep burn

If it is severe, phone for emergency assistance. Take off any clothing or jewellery surrounding the burn (except if it is embedded in the burn).Conceal the burned area with kitchen cling film or any hygienic, non-fluffy material, like a fresh plastic bag. This will guard the burn from infection. If needed, treat for shock (shock is a fatal condition). If you are uncertain if the burn is severe then tell the individual to see a GP.

Related Video On Burns And Scalds

 

How To Treat Head Injuries

September 26th, 2015 | Posted by Jean Alfonso in Uncategorized - (0 Comments)

Overview

All head injuries are possibly serious because they can harm the brain and make someone lose consciousness. How severe a head injury is, depends on how someone hit their head and how harsh the impact was.

A head injury might cause injury to the brain tissue or to blood vessels contained within the skull, or even crack the skull (known as a skull fracture).

What to look for – Head injuries

All head injuries are possibly serious because they can harm the brain and make someone lose consciousness.

All head injuries are possibly serious because they can harm the brain and make someone lose consciousness.

If you think somebody has a head injury, there are six important signs you should look for:

  1. Short-term loss of consciousness
  2. Scalp wound
  3. Vertigo or nausea
  4. Loss of memory of happenings before or during the injury
  5. Headache
  6. Confusion

For a serious head injury, you also need to search for:

  • Reduced level of reaction
  • Loss of awareness
  • Leakage of blood or watery liquid from the nose or ear
  • Uneven pupil size

First Aid Steps – Head Injuries

  1. Sit them down and offer them something cold to press against the wound. You can use a cold ice pack, or a shopping bag of ice or frozen peas enclosed in a cloth.
  2. Treat any scalp injuries like a bleed, by applying direct force to the injury.
  3. Check their level of awareness, by means of the AVPU scale below. Make a note of their responses, particularly any changes to their level of reaction, to pass on to the ambulance, if for instance you have to phone one.

The AVPU Scale

A – Alert: Is the victim alert? Are their eyes open and do they react to questions?

V – Voice: Do they react to your voice? Can they answer simple questions and react to directions?

P – Pain: If they’re not alert or they’re not reacting to your voice – do they react to pain? Try tapping them on the shoulder.

U – Unresponsive: Do they react to questions or a calm shake or tap on the shoulder?

Related Video On Head Injuries

Treating Surgical Wounds

September 13th, 2015 | Posted by Jean Alfonso in Uncategorized - (0 Comments)

Overview

  • Surgical wounds are slits (cuts) created through the skin while undergoing a surgical procedure.
  • The edges of a wound can be held firmly together with closure strips, staples, surgical glue or stitches.
  • Unique surgical bandages can be obtained to soak up fluid from seeping wounds.
  • Occasionally Surgical wounds can split open before they are fully healed. Your health practitioner will direct you on what to do if this occurs.
  • Always sanitize or rinse your hands prior to changing your bandages and follow the instructions your doctor gave you to treat the wound.
  • Monitor how the wound is coming along and if you have any worries about the wound, phone your doctor. Your doctor will direct you with regards to the duration of how long it will take to fully heal.

Visiting Your GP

Surgical wounds are slits (cuts) created through the skin while undergoing a surgical procedure.

Surgical wounds are slits (cuts) created through the skin while undergoing a surgical procedure.

  • You observe changes surrounding the wound, like redness, more pain, tenderness, inflammation or blood loss.
  • The wound has split open, or got deeper or bigger.
  • Seeping from the wound amplifies.
  • Any discharge from the wound becomes thick, alters in color or smell which is unpleasant.
  • You have a high fever.

Chat To Your GP If:

  • You see any signs of contamination, such as redness, heat or inflammation.
  • The wound seem like it is not healing.
  • The wound appears to be very deep.
  • The wound was produced by an animal, snake or human bite.
  • The wound is infected with dirt or saliva.
  • You believe that a foreign object is still lodged in the skin.
  • You might have to get a tetanus injection or booster.

Tearing Of The Skin

Phone the doctor if:

  • The tear appears very deep.
  • A large region of tissue can be viewed beneath the skin.
  • You notice any signs of infection, such as swelling, puffiness, discharge, pain or high temperature.
  • The wound persists to bleed.
  • The wound seems to stop healing fully.
  • The skin around the wound becomes macerated which means the tissue starts to break down.

Related Video – Surgical Wounds

How To Treat Bleeding Gums

September 13th, 2015 | Posted by Jean Alfonso in Uncategorized - (0 Comments)

Overview

  • Progressive disease affecting oral cavity
  • Characterized by chronic bleeding of gums
  • May lead to tooth loss

Causes

  • Poor oral hygiene
    Bleeding gums is a progressive disease affecting oral cavity

    Bleeding gums is a progressive disease affecting oral cavity

  • Inadequate plaque removal
  • Oral trauma, like toothbrush abrasion
  • Inflammation caused by infection
  • Vitamin C / K deficiency
  • Hot food
  • Chemical irritants
  • Leukemia
  • Pregnancy

Treatment

  • Apply pressure using ice-pack
  • Mouth rinse: Pinch of salt in lukewarm water
  • Rinse twice a day to reduce swelling
  • Consult a dentist if bleeding continues
  • Avoid aspirin intake
  • Massage gums regularly
  • Reline poorly fitted dentures
  • Take vitamin supplements if necessary

Prevention

  • Avoid Tobacco
  • Avoid snacking between meals
  • Reduce Carbohydrate- rich food
  • Remove plaque every 6 months
  • Brush teeth using soft-bristled brush
  • Floss teeth regularly

Related Video On Bleeding Gums

How To Treat Anaphylaxis

September 13th, 2015 | Posted by Jean Alfonso in Uncategorized - (0 Comments)

What is Anaphylaxis?

  • Severe, life- threatening allergic reaction
  • Occurs as a reaction to an allergen
  • Anaphylaxis releases various chemicals in body
  • Reactions occur in secs / mins of exposure
  • Occurs in 30 per 100,000 individuals per year

Causes

Anaphylaxis releases various chemicals in body

Anaphylaxis releases various chemicals in body

  • Food like nuts, milk, eggs, fish
  • Insect sting
  • Latex
  • Vaccines
  • Medications like antibiotics, anesthetics
  • Some tropical insects, plants, animals
  • Unknown causes

What Happens?

  • On first exposure-allergen specific antibody, Ig-E, produced
  • On re-exposure, Ig-E triggers immune response
  • This immune response is anaphylaxis

Symptoms

  • Tingling / warm sensation
  • Itchiness / Rash
  • Swelling of areas around mouth / throat
  • Restricted air-ways
  • Reduced oxygen level in brain
  • Signs of asthma
  • Vomiting
  • Cramps
  • Diarrhea
  • Fluid–filled lungs
  • Low blood pressure
  • Palpitations / feeling faint
  • Loss of consciousness

Who is Prone To  Anaphylaxis

  • Those with history of food allergy
  • Those with family history of allergies
  • Those who have experienced prior attack

Treatment

  • If nauseated, lie down on the side
  • If feeling faint, lie down, legs raised
  • In case of breathing difficulty, sit up
  • First-time patients should be hospital treated
  • Epinephrine injections – effective treatment
  • Continuous monitoring mandatory
  • Severity/ response / prior episodes determine treatment

Prevention

  • Avoid allergens as far as possible
  • Those at risk should carry adrenalin auto-injector
  • Inform school authorities, if children at risk
  • Children should wear food allergy badges
  • Emergency protocols necessary in schools/ workplace
  • Educating the public is vital

Related Video On Anaphylaxis

Overview Of Corneal Abrasions

  • The cornea is the external layer of the eye
  • If this layer tears it will result in corneal abrasion.
  • This is the most common damage to the eye
  • The cornea consist of several nerve endings, therefore it is extremely painful if it tears.

Causes Of Corneal Abrasion

The cornea is the external layer of the eye. If this layer tears it will result in corneal abrasion.

The cornea is the external layer of the eye. If this layer tears it will result in corneal abrasion.

Might be caused by

  • A person’s finger nail might tear the cornea
  • Any piercing item such as a piece of glass
  • Small particles like sand can be lodged in the eye
  • Contact lens

 Symptoms Of Corneal Abrasion

  • The person will experience a lot of pain
  • The eye will start to turn red
  • The person will have hazy vision
  • There will be discomfort within the eye
  • The individual will have trouble opening the eye
  • Corneal abrasions can lead to headaches
  • There will be an expulsion of tears as it is connected near the tear ducts.

Treatment Of Corneal Abrasion

  • Antibiotics are used to avoid infections within eye
  • A check-up is completed after using an anaesthetic
  • The pain comes back after anaesthetic is discontinued
  • Recurring usage of anaesthetic is dangerous
  • Eye creams, painkillers are provided
  • A ‘patch’ can be placed on the eyes
  • Eye creams at night stop a reappearance

 Do Not

  • Don’t rub the eyes while they are healing
  • This might damage the new cells surrounding the cornea
  • Re-patching might then be required
  • Avoid wearing contact lenses until the cornea is fully healed

Diagnosis

  • Minor corneal abrasions repair very quickly
  • Haziness might continue for a few weeks
  • Long-lasting loss of sight is uncommon
  • Sometimes abrasions might reappear

  Prevention Of Corneal Abrasion

  • Always apply the directions while putting in contact lens
  • Don’t wear contact lenses for lengthy periods of time
  • Get rid of the lenses if the eye starts to feel irritated
  • Don’t massage or rub the eyes too hard
  • Rinse your hands whenever necessary
  • Cut your nails when needed
  • Be cautious when putting on cosmetics as it can burn your eye

Related Video On Corneal Abrasions

How To Treat Fractures

August 16th, 2015 | Posted by Jean Alfonso in Uncategorized - (0 Comments)

Overview Of Fractures

  • A fracture is caused by either a fragmented or broken bone
  • Happens when force is placed on the bone
  • Takes place with or without the dislocation of bone fragments

Various Fractures

  • Open fracture: The skin cracks resulting in an open injury
  • Closed fracture: The skin is not cracked
  • Complex fractures: There is harm to the adjacent organs
  • Stress fracture: Hairline crack as a result of recurring anxiety
    A fracture is caused by either a fragmented or broken bone

    A fracture is caused by either a fragmented or broken bone

Symptoms of Fracture

  • The person experiences lots of pain
  • The casualty has trouble moving around
  • There is lots of inflammation, staining, and bleeding
  • There might be an abnormality or unusual twist of the limbs
  • The skin might be tender when pressure is applied

Applying First Aid For Fractures

  • It all depends on the sort and position of the fracture

First Aid For Open Fractures

For Open And Closed Fractures

  • Look to see if the casualty is breathing
  • Make sure the casualty is calm
  • Check to see if any other injuries were sustained
  • Keep the broken wound still and make sure the casualty doesn’t move
  • Place ice to decrease pain and inflammation
  • Phone a doctor for medical assistance and advice

Certain Things You Must NOT DO

  • Don’t rub the affected region
  • Don’t try to straighten the fractured bone
  • Don’t shift the fractured bone without the necessary support
  • Don’t move any of the joints surrounding the fracture
  • Don’t offer any food or liquids to the casualty.

Prevention Of Fractures

  • Make sure you wear defensive pads or helmets while driving
  • Explain to your kids about applying proper safety measures to avoid fractures and what they should do, such as proper first aid.

Related Video On Fractures

Overview Of A Concussion

A concussion is a temporary disruption in brain function as a result of a head injury. A concussion causes:

  • Headache, confusion, or unsteadiness.
  • Losing consciousness which lasts less than 30 minutes or a person doesn’t become unconscious at all.
  • Amnesia (memory loss) lasting less than one day.

About 50 % of all head related injuries occur during motor car accidents. Half of head injuries are also caused by assaults, sports and falls.

Symptoms Of A Concussion

A concussion is a temporary disruption in brain function as a result of a head injury.

A concussion is a temporary disruption in brain function as a result of a head injury.

A concussion can cause any or all of the following symptoms:

  • Headache;
  • Neck pain;
  • Queasiness or vomiting;
  • Faintness or vertigo;
  • Hearing loss;
  • Blurry or double vision;
  • Exhaustion;
  • Touchiness, nervousness or change in character;
  • Memory loss (also known as amnesia);
  • Confusion, trouble focusing or slowing of reaction time; and
  • Short-term loss of consciousness.

Symptoms often appear straight away after the injury. Though, in certain cases, an individual will feel okay at first and the symptoms will start to appear minutes or hours later.

Symptoms such as blackout (unresponsiveness), convulsions or suggest a more severe type of head injury.

Treatment Of A Concussion

  • Most minor head injuries recover with relaxation and observation.
  • Your GP might choose to examine you in the hospital or might send you home for someone to look after you. The GP will give the individual precise instructions about inspecting for danger signs.

When To Phone A GP

  • Sleepiness or a decrease in awareness;
  • Queasiness or vomiting;
  • Confusion or forgetfulness;
  • Trouble walking or poor coordination;
  • Inaudible speech;
  • Double vision;
  • Illogical or hostile behaviour;
  • Seizures; and
  • Deadness or paralysis in any part of the body.

Related Video On Concussions

How To Treat Blisters

August 2nd, 2015 | Posted by Jean Alfonso in Uncategorized - (0 Comments)

Overview Of A Blister

  • A blister is a bulge packed with fluid that emerges when the skin’s external layer is hurt.
  • The fluid occurs below the injured skin and safeguards the new skin growing beneath it. When the new skin develops, the body slowly reabsorbs the liquid.
  • The development generally takes 3–7 days. At times the blister cracks on its own.
  • GP’s occasionally use the terms ‘vesicle’ for a minor blister and ‘bulla’ for a bigger blister.

What Are The Causes Of Blisters

A blister is a bulge packed with fluid that emerges when the skin’s external layer is hurt.

A blister is a bulge packed with fluid that emerges when the skin’s external layer is hurt.

  • Constant friction;
  • Scalds;
  • Bites or stings from insects;
  • Virus-related infection such as cold sores;

Steps To Take

  • Do not rupture the blister. Let it restore on its own to stop infection.
  • Make sure the blister and adjoining area is hygienic.
  • Conceal the blister with a soft bandage if it’s in a region that might get knocked or rubbed throughout the day.
  • If the blister cracks, leave the fluid to drain on its own. Then, rinse it with soap and water and put some antiseptic lotion on it.
  • Check in with your GP if there is an increase in irritation surrounding the blister, inflammation, or discharge as these are symptoms of an infection.
  • You must also visit your GP if you get unexplained or extensive blistering, or if you feel ill as an outcome of the blisters.

What Will Your GP Do?

If the blister becomes septic, it might need the subsequent medical treatment.

  • Draining the discharge or fluid under hygienic settings and application of appropriate treatment and bandages.
  • Antibiotics if an infection has occurred.

Your GP might also be able to provide you medications to treat any allergy that might be existent.

Preventing Blisters

  • Wear comfy shoes and socks.
  • Determine the causes of any skin reaction or irritation (see your GP for proper analysis).

Related Video On Blisters