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Author Archives: Mikha Canon

First Aid Management: Dehydration

July 7th, 2015 | Posted by Mikha Canon in First Aid Traning - (0 Comments)

Dehydration occurs when the body loses more fluid than it gains fluid. The body is composed of approximately 50% to 70% water, thus it only makes sense that the body needs water to function. In the body, it is important that the cells, the most basic functional unit of the body, have more water entering the cell as opposed to leaving it. But in cases of dehydration, more water is leaving the cell than entering. Thus, when there is excessive loss of body fluids, particularly water, dehydration happens. Apart from this, electrolyte imbalance also occurs

Water is normally lost every day. It occurs in different forms, such as water vapor during exhalation and in liquid form in sweat, urine and stool. Apart from the water, salt is also lost but in much smaller amounts.

Causes of Dehydration

Anything that leads to excessive loss of body fluids can lead to dehydration. These include:

  • Food poisoning and other infections that lead to fever, vomiting or diarrhea
  • Prolonged exposure to the hot weather, especially when coupled with physical activity
  • Certain diseases, such as diabetes, which are associated with rapid loss of fluids
  • Skin injuries through loss of water by means of damaged skin, such as burns, mouth sores or other skin infections
  • Alcohol intoxication

Signs and Symptoms of Dehydration

Mild to moderate cases of dehydration can show any of the following signs and symptoms. These include:

  • Dry, sticky mouth
  • Dry throat
  • Thirst
  • Reduced urine output that is usually dark in color
    • For infants, lack of wet diapers for three hours
    • For older children, no urine output for eight hours
  • Constipation
  • Dry skin
  • Headache
  • Tiredness
  • Sleepiness

Severe cases of dehydration may lead to more intense signs and symptoms. Severe dehydration is life-threatening

  • Mouth, Mucus membranes and skin very dry
  • Extreme thirst
  • Little to no urine output – urine is dark yellow or amber in color
  • Absence of sweating
  • Fever
  • Rapid pulse
  • Rapid breathing
  • Hypotension (low blood pressure)
  • Delirium
  • Loss of consciousness

First Aid Management for Dehydration

Dehydration caused by prolonged exposure to hot weather, or heat stroke, will have a different first aid management. But for the other causes of dehydration, the following tips can be done:

Give clear fluids, such as water, fruit juices and sports drinks to individuals suffering from dehydration

Give clear fluids, such as water, fruit juices and sports drinks to individuals suffering from dehydration

  • Give the individual two quarts of clear fluids, such as water, fruit juices and sports drinks every two to four hours. Do not give diuretics, such as sodas, caffeine and alcohol.
    • If dehydration is a result of diarrhea or vomiting, drink small amounts but more frequently.
    • In cases of excessive vomiting and watery diarrhea, drink diluted fruit juice or oral rehydration solutions because water dilutes the minerals in the body.
  • Take plenty of rest and do not engage in strenuous activity.
  • If there is fever, give appropriate first aid.

Learn how to properly manage dehydration by joining First Aid Courses. These First Aid Courses help treat the condition and avoid possible complications from developing.

Dehydration occurs when more fluid is lost than accumulated by the body. As a result, electrolyte imbalance occurs in the body.

First Aid Management: Blast Injuries

March 7th, 2014 | Posted by Mikha Canon in How to be Prepared - (0 Comments)

Blast injuries is a form of physical trauma that occur as a result of direct or indirect exposure to explosions, it often causes life threatening injuries to single or multiple victims all at the same time.

Factors that Affect Likelihood of Blast Injuries

Every explosion generates a complex wave pressure from which blast injuries result from. Several factors affect the probability of blast injuries, which include:

  • Medium – water has greater possibility for injury as compared to explosion in are due to the slow rate of dissipation
  • Distance – the closer  an individual is from an explosion, the great pressure from blast is experienced
  • Site of blast – individuals closer to solid surfaces will be exposed to enhanced blast pressure, therefore are at greater risks of injury

Classification of Blast Injuries

Blast injuries are subdivided into four categories: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary or miscellaneous blast-related injuries.

Primary Blast Injuries

  • Occurs as a result of direct effect on the tissue of the blast overpressure
  • Organs that are particularly vulnerable these kinds of injuries are air-filled organs, such as the lungs, ear, and gastrointestinal tract, and fluid-filled cavities, such as brain and spinal cord

Secondary Blast Injuries

  • Occurs as a result of people getting hit by debris that is directly displaced by the waves of blast pressure
  • Causes combination of blunt and penetrating trauma injuries

Tertiary Blast Injuries

  • Occurs as a result of high-energy explosions
  • Causes people to fly through the air and hit other objects

Quaternary or Miscellaneous Blast-Related Injuries

  • Injuries that are caused by explosions
  • Such as fire, building collapse, burns, exposure to toxic substances (e.g. carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning, radiation), asphyxia and psychological trauma

Causes of Blast Injuries

There are many potential causes of blast injuries, which include:

  • Gas explosions (most common)
  • Armed conflicts
  • Terrorist attacks
  • Suicide bombers

First Aid Management of Blast Injuries

It is necessary to administer first aid to all victims of blast injuries at all times. The proper first aid will depend on the type of injury sustained by an individual. Call for emergency local services immediately. The following is the general protocol in cases of blast injuries:

  • If the individual is unconscious, check his/ her airway, breathing and circulation. If necessary, initiate CPR immediately.
  • If there is bleeding, control the bleeding by applying firm, direct pressure on the wound. Use a dressing or any clean absorbent cloth.
  • Begin measures to decrease heat loss and avoid hypothermia.
  • If there are signs and symptoms of shock, treat so.
blast injuries can often progress shock if not given first aid immediately

blast injuries can often progress shock if not given first aid immediately

To learn how to give proper first aid to all victims of blast injuries, enroll in First Aid Training and CPR Courses.

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