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How to Treat Sun Poisoning

September 17th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in Poisonings - (0 Comments)

Most people cannot wait to go outside to soak up the sun after a

long, barren winter. The sun has many countless benefits on earth. For starters, the sun makes life possible on Earth. Sun is the primary source of energy of all living things. Moreover, moderate doses of sun activate vitamin D production in the body. Although despite the necessity of the sun to vitamin D synthesis, it is necessary to limit exposure of the skin to sunlight. It is known to many that overexposure to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays leads to sunburn. However, a more severe form of photodermatitis, or an abnormal skin response to sunlight, is sun poisoning.

The earth’s ozone layer keeps these harmful UV rays from entering earth, however, not all is filtered out. Due to the thinning ozone layer, more and more UV rays pass through this layer, causing more harm than ever on the skin. When the UV rays permeate through the outer layer of the skin, it causes damage to the living cells found beneath. This usually causes sunburn, but the more severe reaction is sun poisoning.

The body produces melanin, the determinant pigment that determines eye, hair and skin color. Two types of melanin are produced in the body, eumelanin and pheomelanin. The former is commonly found in dark-skinned people, turning their skin brown and acts as natural protection from sunburns, whereas the latter commonly causes the skin to redden, and is thus frequently found in fair-skinned people. Hence, fair-skinned people are more prone to sun poisoning. Interestingly enough, it is said that redheads are most susceptible to skin damage after extended sun exposure.

Some of signs and symptoms include headache, dizziness or fainting, nausea, chills, blisters, quick pulse and breathing, blisters, dehydration, shock and unconsciousness. A person is also in danger of electrolyte imbalance if there is sun poisoning. This is aside from the painful, red and burning feeling of the skin that is normally associated with sunburn. If dehydration, shock or unconsciousness is observed, seek medical attention immediately. Furthermore, if there is extreme pain or vomiting or a fever develops of over 104°F, it is better to head to an emergency room. IV fluids may be administered to reinstate hydration or oral steroids may be prescribed to lessen inflammation.

To treat sun poisoning, increased efforts to cool the body down and stay hydrated. Take frequent cool (not cold) baths. Drink plenty of fluids, such as water, fruit juices and sports drinks, and avoid drinking caffeinated drinks as they as diuretics. Don’t rub the skin, only patting it, with wet cloth. If possible, stay in a cool environment until symptoms alleviate to avoid further damage on the skin.

Sun Poisoning                It is better to prevent sun poisoning rather than to treat it. If exposure to the sun is expected, apply generous amounts of sunscreen and protective clothing, such as hats. Sunscreen of at least SPF 30 and broad spectrum is generally recommended.

Although it may be less common than sunburn, sun poisoning is more severe and would require home treatment right away in order to not exacerbate symptoms. Through St Mark James programs, first aid training is made available to educate the lay community on how to treat and ease symptoms for many various medical situations. Moreover, CPR courses are also offered to participants who want to learn the most up to date CPR training for emergency medical situations.

Femur Fracture

August 17th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in How to be Prepared - (0 Comments)

What is a femur fracture?

Femur, the longest and strongest bone of human body, contributes the skeleton of the thigh. Since femur is the strongest bone with a lot of muscle bulk veiling it, only hard forces (for instance car crashes, falling from heights) can cause it to break away.

Types of femur fracture:

Femur is divided into different parts anatomically, which means fracture at a specific point will give the fracture specific name; following femur fractures occur commonly:

–          Fracture of femoral head

–          Fracture of femoral neck

–          Subtrochanteric fracture

–          Fracture of the shaft of femur

The first three fractures are usually associated with hip fractures and involve the proximal part of the bone.

A sharp thrust may cause dislocation of hip bone, leading especially to the fracture of the femoral head.

Subtrochanteric fracture involves the shaft of the femur immediately beneath the greater and lesser trochanter.

Fractures of shaft of femur:                                         

The fracture of the shaft of the femur is classified into three types:

–          Type 1: spiral or transverse

The bone breaks either spirally or in a linear pattern, completely separated from the other part.

–          Type 2: comminuted

In this type the bone breaks away into little fragments.

–          Type 3: open

Open fractures are those in which the bone breaks completely with piercing the surrounding tissue; that includes skin and muscles. This type may alternatively be known as: compound fracture.

Other types of fractures are:

Greenstick fracture: a fracture in which bone doesn’t completely separate from the other part. The fracture in turn spans only half way through the bone. This fracture is therefore an incomplete fracture.

Femur fracture Causes:

–          High energy collisions

–          Car or motorbike crashes

–          Gunshot wounds (uncommon)

–          Free fall with direct landing on legs causing an upward thrust (associated with other fractures of lower limb)

–          Osteoporosis or osteopenia

–          Low force incidents- with nutritional deficiencies (weaker bones)

Femur fracture Symptoms and investigations:

The symptoms include:

–          Sharp pain

–          Deformed bone

–          Bruises (at times)

–          If open fracture occurs, the bone may itself be seen.

For further investigations and confirmations the doctor may ask you to get an x-ray or CT (Computed Tomography) done.

Femur fracture Complications:

Breakage of a femur bone can cause sharp ends to sever the surrounding blood vessels. This may lead to formation of clots. The clots may detach and run in the blood as emboli. These disseminating emboli can cause further complications by plugging into small blood vessels of body and blocking their blood flow leading to ischemia.

The sharp ends of bone may also damage the nerves of environs.

Infections, fat embolism, non- or mal- alignment are some other complications.

Femur fracture Treatment and recovery:

Treatment depends on severity of injury and maybe surgical or non surgical.

The femur fractures usually involve surgical treatment. If, however, the Femur Fracturebone has suffered a less severe injury, non surgical treatment might be considered. The non surgical treatment involves nothing but a cast that is wrapped around the injured area.

2-3 month strict rest and immobility are important to let the bone settle in its place and avoid mal-alignment.

Asthma Attack in Pregnant Women

August 7th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in How to be Prepared - (0 Comments)

Asthma Attack in Pregnant WomenAsthma attacks in pregnant women are quite common, even for those who have never had asthma before.Having asthma does not necessarily mean that the pregnancy will become more difficult or dangerous to either the fetus or the mother.Asthma is a respiratory condition which affects the airways, specifically the bronchi. People with asthma have more sensitive than normal lung airways.

Asthma attacks occur when a trigger, something that irritates the lungs, narrows the airways. The lining then becomes inflamed, whereas the muscles constrict. Moreover, there is an increased production of sticky sputum (phlegm). Pregnant women with asthma, and anyone with asthma, actually, should always have an asthma plan and recognize asthma triggers to avoid unnecessary consequences.

Causes of Asthma Attack in Pregnant Women

The precise cause of asthma has not yet been determined. When symptoms of asthma worsen, it leads to asthma attack. Any of the following may cause asthma attacks. The following are called triggers:

  • Respiratory infections, whether bacterial or viral
  • Air pollution, such as tobacco smoke
  • Allergens, such as pollens, dust mites, etc.
  • Contact with animals, especially cats
  • Indoor conditions
  • Weather conditions
  • Exercise, especially in cold weather
  • Emotional factors, such as laughing or stress
  • Strong smells
  • Certain medications

Risk of Uncontrolled Asthma Attack in Pregnant Women

During asthma attacks, it does not only affect the pregnant mother but the fetus inside the womb as well. It limits oxygen that gets to the fetus as well.

  • Risks to one’s self
    • Hypertension
    • Preeclampsia
    • Morning sickness
    • Vaginal bleeding
    • Induced and/ or complicated labor
    • Risks to the fetus
      • Oxygen deprivation for the baby
      • Unusually slow growth of the fetus, making the baby appear small after birth
      • Low birth weight
      • Preterm birth
      • Death immediately before or after birth

Symptoms of Asthma Attack in Pregnant Women

                Symptoms of asthma attack vary in pregnant women and some pregnancies actually improve asthma symptoms for women. Symptoms for asthma attacks are usually the same for all people

  • Breathing difficulties, very rapid breathing or short breaths, which may lead to trouble sleeping
  • Wheezing or whistling sound while breathing out
  • Frequent coughing that does not stop
  • Chest pressure
  • Tightened muscles of the neck and chest
  • Cyanosis of lips or fingernails
  • Pale, sweating face
  • Difficulty talking
  • Feeling panic or anxiety

First Aid for Asthma Attack in Pregnant Women

It is necessary to treat

href=”″>asthma attacks in pregnant women to avoid any of the risks mentioned above. Administering first aid during asthma attacks in pregnant women can help minimize risks for injury. Pregnant women can follow the same action plan as non-pregnant women.

  • If there is an asthma plan, use this
  • Stay calm and comfort the pregnant woman. Do not leave the pregnant woman alone at all times.
  • Assist the pregnant women into sitting upright and loosen tight clothing.
  • If the woman has her own inhaler, make use of this. Make sure to borrow one, if none is available. Give one puff of reliever inhaler every after one minute. Give four separate puffs. Use a spacer, if possible.
  • After four minutes, give another four separate puffs each separated by a minute.
  • If the pregnant woman still has trouble breathing, call for emergency medical services. Continue giving four separate puffs every four minutes until help arrives.

It is highly recommended for those living with asthma to join in first aid courses. The article above is for mere information but does not teach proper handling of these cases. To learn more about asthma attacks in pregnant women and management, join in St Mark James First Aid Training.

Treating Hypoglycemia

August 3rd, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in How to be Prepared - (0 Comments)

Hypoglycemia, a medical condition characterized by abnormally Hypoglycemialow glucose levels in the body, is commonly associated with diabetes, although non-diabetics may also experience this. The normal blood sugar level ranges from 70 to 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before breakfast as glucose levels may rise after breakfast, depending on diet. When blood sugar level dips below 60 mg/dL, symptoms of hypoglycemia begin to manifest. At levels below 50 mg/dL, brain function may be impaired. A glucose meter can be used to check blood sugar level.

Glucose is the main energy source of the body. It comes from breaking down carbohydrates from food into smaller molecules. Glucose is directly absorbed into the bloodstream and enters the body’s cells. When a person skips meals, insulin is still released, therefore glucose is still removed from blood, thus lowering glucose levels in the blood.

Hypoglycemia Causes

                Majority of cases of hypoglycemia befall in adults with diabetes mellitus. There are many causes for hypoglycemia. Some of the common causes include the following:

  • Skipping meals
  • Overmedication with insulin or other antidiabetic medications (for diabetics)
  • Certain medications non related to diabetes
  • Severe infection
  • Kidney failure
  • Liver failure
  • Congenital, genetic defects
  • Tumors
  • Alcohol abuse

Hypoglycemia Symptoms

It is important to recognize symptoms of hypoglycemia in order to administer proper treatment right away. The following symptoms may go away almost instantaneously after eating sugary foods.

  • Trembling and weakness
  • Nervousness
  • Extreme hunger
  • Nausea
  • Sweating
  • Blurred vision
  • Dizziness and headache
  • Palpitations

If symptoms are untreated and continue to drop below 40 mg/dL, behavior may begin to change. These are characterized by:

  • Confusion
  • Irritability
  • Having a hard time to concentrate
  • Slurred speech
  • Incapability to stalk or walk properly
    • Twitching muscles
    • Mood swings

Severe cases of hypoglycemia, which are defined by low blood sugar levels of below 20 mg/dL include:

  • Convulsions
  • Unconsciousness
  • Stroke
  • Death


Hypoglycemia is diagnosed in accordance of presence of the three key features, also known as Whipple’s triad. These include:

  • Symptoms consistent with hypoglycemia,
  • Low plasma glucose concentration, and
  • Alleviation of symptoms after raising plasma glucose levels

Hypoglycemia Treatment

Hypoglycemia is treated by restoring blood glucose levels to normal. This can be done quickly and easily by the following steps. Though these hints should not serve as medical advice, nor should replace first aid and CPR courses.

  • Eat 15 to 30 grams of carbohydrates. Some of these examples include:
    • Twelve gummy bears
    • One tablespoon sugar in water
    • Half cup of apple juice, orange juice, regular soda, fat free milk, etc.
    • One small apple, orange, etc.
    • If there is an underlying cause, treatment will be given for this.

Low blood sugar levels in the body should be treated immediately to prevent further decrease of glucose levels. It is highly recommended for diabetics and those who live with diabetics to take first aid training and CPR courses, in cases hypoglycemia and other diabetes-related emergencies may occur.

Medical Emergencies: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

July 27th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in How to be Prepared - (0 Comments)

Alcohol Withdrawal SyndromeAlcohol withdrawal syndrome is an acute toxic state which occurs as a result of a sudden cessation of alcohol intake of a known alcoholic following a session of heavy drinking. Upon the body’s dependence on the substance, an abrupt intake of alcohol can lead to various health complications which is highly dependent on how much alcohol was ingested and for how long.

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome or otherwise known as delirium tremens may be precipitated by infection or acute injury (such as hepatitis, pancreatitis and pneumonia) and is considered the most severe form of withdrawal syndrome.

Initial signs and clinical manifestations of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

Individuals with alcohol withdrawal syndrome will typically show signs of anxiety, uncontrollable fear, irritability, agitation, incontinence and insomnia. Moreover, such individuals show signs of decreased inhibition by being very talkative and preoccupied in their visual, tactile, olfactory and auditory experience which are very terrifying as these forms of hallucinations can lead to injury to the individual’s self as well as the health care providers rendering care.

Autonomic excitability occurs and is evidenced by tachycardia, dilated pupils and profuse sweating or perspiration. Normally, all vital signs are elevated in the individual’s alcoholic state. This form of withdrawal syndrome is very life-threatening and carries with it a high mortality rate if not treated properly.      

Treatment objectives for individuals with alcohol withdrawal syndrome

The ultimate goals in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome are  to give adequate sedation and support to allow the victim ample enough rest and recovery without endangering the individual’s peripheral vascular integrity. An in depth physical examination is normally performed in order to identify any preexisting illnesses that might contribute or aggravate injuries (e.g.: pneumonia, head injury). A drug history is also obtained to further elicit additional information that may help facilitate adjustment of any sedative procedure. Baseline blood pressure is determined because the individual’s subsequent treatment/procedures may depend on changes in the individual’s blood pressure.

Ideally, the patient is sedated as directed with a sufficient dosage of sedative medications such as benzodiazepines to help establish and maintain continuity of sedation which significantly reduces agitation, prevents exhaustion, prevents seizures and help promote sleep and comfort. The individual is expected to be calmer, able to respond and maintain an airway on their own without added support. Normally, assessment data will be the guide ED physicians and nurses will follow when adjusting dosages according to the individual’s symptoms and blood pressure response.

Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

An Individual who is in the acute phase of alcohol withdrawal syndrome is to be placed in a calm and non-stressful environment (usually in a private room and so that they can be monitored closely. The room should be adequately lighted so help minimize illusions (visual interpretations) as well as hallucinations. Homicidal or suicidal responses are closely associated with such stimulus.

Fluid loss is monitored and intake of fluids via orally or intravenously is prescribed to curb additional fluid imbalance. Temperature, pulse, respiration and blood pressure are recorded every 30 minutes for severe forms of delirium. The aforementioned assessment guide should be recorded and relayed to members of the health care team in the ED to avoid hypothermia and peripheral circulatory collapse which are the tow most common complications of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

How to administer first aid for child poisoning

July 25th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in Poisonings - (0 Comments)

No matter how careful you are when it comes to your child’s safety in your How to administer first aid for child poisoninghome, you cannot protect the little one enough every parent should have basic first aid skills in case of emergencies. Childhood poisoning is one of such emergencies that require a bit of first aid knowledge, even after child proofing every inch of the house, locking up all cleaning chemicals and storing all the medicines in the top most shelves; children tend to be very curious and
experimental when no one is watching. Children end up ingesting very harmful substances such as make-up, cleaning detergents, or even fertilizers from the kitchen garden things that you wouldn’t think of stashing away for their safety. Reported cases of poisoning reveal that it is most common among children under 7years. Parents need to know how to act in the event of such emergencies as it is vital and can save a child’s life.

Indications of childhood poisoning before carrying out First Aid

• Redness or Burns  around the mouth  (is a sign your kid drank something caustic)
• Smell of chemicals from the breath
• Stainss, Burns,  and smells on the child, clothes, or anywhere in the house
• Vomiting,  sleepiness, confusion, difficulty breathing,  or other strange behavior
• Unconsciousness or Seizures

First aid for childhood poisoning:

In the event of child poisoning it is important that you remain calm and locate the cause of the poisoning so as to know exactly how to treat it and also to ensure that it causes no more harm to others. There are various ways to treat different poisoning cases among them, that‘s why it is good for every member at home to attend First Aid Training so as to have the know how.

• Check for the child’s state of consciousness; this determines the treatment to give the child and also who to call for assistance.
• If the child is unconscious, and shows no sign of life immediately start to administer CPR and call for emergency medical assistance giving clear information of what transpired.
• If the child is unconscious but seems to be breathing normal, put her in the recovery position (make them lie on the side with head tilted slightly above) to open up the airway.
• If the poisoning is in solid form, for example pills, wrap your finger in a clean cloth or even wash your hands clean and remove any residue that may be in your child’s mouth.
• If it is a skin corrosive, you may remove the child’s clothing from the injured area and put under running water for 30 minutes.
• If it has has come in contact with the child’s eyes, you may flush the eyes with plenty of clean, lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes. Ask the child to blink repetitively and avoid rubbing their eyes.
• DO NOT induce vomiting unless you’re advised to do so by medical professionals.


It is almost not easy to child proof all corners of the house as even the common household things can contain harmful chemicals that affect children. It is only safer if a parent learns basic First Aid Courses treatments to administer to the children before the medics arrive.


In this article, you can learn all about CPR training for child poisoning.

First Aid Skills All Coaches Should Know

July 6th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in First Aid Traning - (0 Comments)

first-aid-for-coachesAs any coach knows, their job is a tough, multi-faceted one. After all, coaches are also teachers, parental figures, friends and at times, paramedics. Sports are also very unpredictable so it’s crucial for coaches to have first aid training so they can take care of their charges to the best of their abilities. Here are several first aid skills that every coach should be familiar with.

  • Coaches should know when to call 911. Every good leader knows when to push the advantage, when to hang tough, when to retreat and when to call for reinforcements. Coaches don’t always have the luxury to pull out and check each one of their athletes for every wound or minor injury. But they should know when to let their player back in the game and when to 911.
  • Every coach should have taken CPR classes. CPR is the one skill that every coach are required to know and valued above all other skills. Coaches are at the front line and should know how to stop a bleeding or how to make a splint.
  • Coaches should know what to do with a neck injury. Most athletes think of their coaches as a pain in their necks and rightly so, for who else would always be on your back and pushing you to become better. But a good coach isn’t only good at breathing down your neck, he or she also knows what to do if you feel a literal pain in the neck.
  • Coaches know that a head injury can become a recurring headache for the team. There are instances, and sports, when a hit to head is inevitable. However, this can result in some pretty scary damages. This is why it’s crucial for all coaches to be able to recognize and react to a head injury.
  • Sprains can become a real pain when not treated immediately. Every good coach knows how much abuse their athletes’ limbs go through and knows how to ice, wrap and elevate sprained limbs like a licensed professional.
  • Coaches know a thing or two about broken bones. A sprain is so different from a fracture or a broken bone and should not be taken lightly.
  • Cuts, bruises and wounds are de rigeur for sports and coaches who should know to dress different kinds of wounds.
  • Some sports simply require a medical team that are there to help the coach take care of his or her team’s bruised and battered bodies. But while the medical team can deal with stuff like cuts and sprains, it’s the coach’s keen eyes who’ll decide if an athlete is almost running on empty and needs to be rehydrated. A coach who doesn’t notice that an athlete is dehydrated might soon have a bigger problem to deal with – heat stroke. A player suffering from heat stroke can become disoriented or lose consciousness. This is a serious problem that can happen even on

Countless parents and players place their full confidence and belief that the coach knows what’s best and knows how to handle emergencies. As such, most organizations require that their coach and coaching staff have first aid certification.

Hay Fever, Other Allergic Reactions & Anaphylactic Shock

June 28th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in Allergies - (0 Comments)

allergic_reactionThis is the season dreaded by many hay fever sufferers, it can cause misery with the frustrating symptoms. It is a useful skill to be able to treat allergic reactions as a quick response may be needed depending on the severity.


An allergic reaction is hypersensitivity which causes an abnormal reaction to normally harmless substances, such as pollen, food, a medication or a chemical.

The St Mark James First Aid manual says in an allergic reaction, the immune system ‘attacks’ this substance and causes various reactions, usually affecting the respiratory system, digestive system or the skin.

First Aid Classes teach the symptoms of an allergic reaction. These can be:

  • red, itchy rash or raised areas of skin
  • wheezing and difficulty in breathing
  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting and diarrhoea


Hay fever is caused by an allergic reaction to pollen.

Hay fever is usually not a severe reaction. The symptoms include:

  • sneezing
  • runny, itchy or blocked nose
  • itchy eyes

When you encounter a patient experiencing an allergic reaction, your first job as a First Aider is to assess the severity of the patients’ reaction. Identify the signs and symptoms and find out if they have any known allergies.

If the patients symptoms are mild, then St Mark James Training states you can give assistance in treating them. The patient should take any medication they may have.

However, if the patient is distressed or experiences any breathing difficulties you must obtain emergency assistance straight away as this may be an anaphylactic reaction.


Some people are at risk of a dangerous reaction, known as anaphylactic shock. This condition is life-threatening and must be treated immediately. St Mark James Training teaches the knowledge needed to react quickly and appropriately to this situation.

Anaphylactic shock is a severe allergic reaction which affects the entire body. It can be caused by a variety of substances, including a food allergy, drug allergy, insect bites/stings and skin or airborne contact with particular materials.

The patient may not know they have an allergy, and it can occur even if there has been no reaction to the substance previously.

An anaphylactic reaction is recognised by:

  • anxiety
  • widespread red, blotchy skin outbreak
  • swelling of the tongue and throat
  • puffy eyes
  • difficulty in breathing or chest tightness
  • signs of shock

St Mark James First Aid manual states it can develop within seconds, minutes or over hours and can be fatal. First Aid Classes emphasise emergency removal to hospital is vital as the patient will need an injection of adrenaline.

Patients who are aware that they have a severe allergy may carry their own treatment, often an ‘EpiPen’ (containing adrenaline) for self-administration. If they do have this treatment, assist them in using it.

Continue to monitor the patient until specialist help arrives. Check their airway and breathing if they become unconscious and be ready to administer CPR if necessary. If they are unconscious but still breathing, put them into the recovery position.

If the patient remains conscious, assist them in finding the most comfortable position to relieve their breathing and continue to speak in a calm and reassuring voice until help arrives.

Ingrown Hair Treatment

June 14th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in Hair Problems Treatment - (0 Comments)

Ingrown hair is a common problem which causes hair to grow back into the skin after shaving or tweezing. This normally results in inflammation and irritation and can affect in people with tightly coiled hair and shave, wax or pluck their hair. Electrolysis to remove the hair can also cause ingrown hair.

Ingrown hair may cause a localized pain along with bumps in the area where hair has been removed. The bumps are usually just embarrassing for many people.

You can avoid ingrown hair by not removing your hair at all. However, if this cannot be avoided, you can consider alternative air removing methods that may have a lower risk of ingrown hairs.

Risk factors

People with tightly curled hair are most susceptible to ingrown hairs; therefore, the condition is mostly common in blacks and Hispanics.

Signs and symptoms

Ingrown hair is common in men in the beard region, which includes the cheeks, chin and the neck. Men who shave their heads may have it in their scalp. In females, ingrown hair is common in areas such as the armpits, the pubic regions and the legs.

Signs and symptoms of ingrown hair include:

  • Tiny, solid bumps
  • Small pus-filled lesions
  • Pain
  • Itching
  • Darkening of the skin, also known as hyperpigmentation
  • Itching
  • Embedded hair


When to seek medical attention

If ingrown hair is occasional; it is not a cause for concern.

See a doctor if:

  • Ingrown hair is chronic. Your doctor may be able to help to control the problem
  • Excessive unwanted hair growth results in ingrown hair, if you are a woman. In this case, the doctor will most probably determine the cause of the condition and treatment.


In order to prevent ingrown hairs, the best method is to stop methods of hair removal such as shaving, plucking or waxing hair. If you really have to remove hair, it is better if you consider laser treatment for hair removal, which will remove the hair from deeper within the hair follicles to prevent re-growth more effectively. However, it may take several treatments until you can inhibit growth completely.

Medications may be prescribed by your health care provider if ingrown hair is too bothersome for you. Retinoids may be prescribed by your doctor to help remove dead skin cells from the skin surface. Retinoids can also help relieve thickening and hyperpigmentation of the affected regions of the skin that often occurs on dark skin that is susceptible to ingrown hairs.

Corticosteroids may be prescribed as well to control inflammation of the skin.

Topical antibiotics can help prevent infection that is causing by excessive scratching of the affected regions. For more severe infections, oral antibiotics may be prescribed.

[heading style=”1″]CPR and AED Tips on how to conduct first aid to unconscious patients[/heading]
unconscious victim first aid treatment

Initial assessment of the patient prior to first aid treatment

Consciousness pertains to our awareness of our own thoughts, feelings, memories, sensations and environment. It is when we are aware of the world around us. Thus, when one is unconscious, he/ she is incapable of responding to people and/ or activities. The disruption in the brain’s normal activity leads to momentary loss of consciousness, which can occur gradually or suddenly. It must be noted that being asleep is different from being unconscious. Whereas the former is capable of responding to loud noises or mild pressure applied to their body, the latter will not. Moreover, an unconscious person is unable to clear his or her throat or cough. You need to have your AED training to learn more about first aid treament and CPR as well.

The first important step is to begin by completing an initial survey – danger, response, airway, breathing (DRAB). Check for danger. Ensure that the area is safe before assessing the victim. If the victim is drowning, first make sure that it is safe to enter the water before jumping in to rescue. Check for a response from the victim. Give a command such as “Open your eyes” or “Can you hear me?” Shake their shoulders gently. If there is a response, immediately assess for other injuries such as severe bleeding. Lift the chin, clear the mouth and tilt the head to open airway. Using two fingers lift the chin and place the other hand on the forehead. It is necessary to check for breathing as first aid would differ if there is absence. To do this, position the cheek close to the mouth. For no more than ten seconds, observe if there is a rise and fall in the chest. Listen for breathing and try to feel the breath on the cheek. If there is breathing and assuming there is no major injury, move the victim into the recovery position. Turn the victim on his/ her side. To open airway position, lift chin forward. Place the hand under the cheek and adjust as necessary. Ensure that the victim will not be falling forward or backward. Continuously monitor for breathing. Again, assuming that there are no other injuries, turn the victim to the other side after half an hour. If there is suspected spinal injury, do not move the victim. Call for emergency medical response. Find for the nearest first aid and CPR training locations in your place and enroll.

Here is a related video from the British St Mark James entitled “Everyday First Aid: Unconscious and not breathing”

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If the victim is unconscious and deemed not breathing after completing the initial DRAB survey, immediately begin CPR. Call for emergency medical response only if the rescuer is not alone. However, if alone, scream for help and return, reexamine and carry on with CPR. If the victim is unconscious cause by drowning, give five initial rescue breaths. To perform a rescue breath, make sure airway is open and pinch the nose resolutely closed. Take a deep breath and cover the lips around the victim’s mouth. Blow into the mouth until there is a rise in the chest. Allow the chest to fall by removing mouth. Repeat five times. Then commence CPR for one minute before finding help. In order to give compressions, position the heel of the hand in the center of the chest and position the second hand on top, interlocking the fingers. Arms must remain straight and fingers off the chest. Press down five or six centimeters and discharge the pressure whilst keeping the hands in place. Repeat compressions for about 30 times, at a rate of 100-120 per minute. Give an additional two rescue breaths. Continue the same cycle: CPR, 30 compression, two rescue breaths until either arrival of emergency help or there are recovery signs such as coughing, eyes opening, speaking or moving and normal breathing.

Although these are fairly easy to do, panic almost always arises from these kinds of situations. First Aid certification and CPR classes are always the best way to be guided in emergency situations such as these.

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