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Author Archives: Julius Mark


January 9th, 2014 | Posted by Julius Mark in Infections / Viruses / Parasites - (0 Comments)
WINDED Symptoms

WINDED Symptoms

When a person is ‘winded’ it means that he or she has been subjected to a sudden powerful impact to his or her abdomen. When such a collision occurs, the individual faces difficulty in breathing as he or she is considered to have been winded.

WINDED Symptoms

An individual suffering from this condition known as solar plexus syndrome or winded usually experiences various symptoms such as difficulty in breathing, especially when he or she breathes deeply. In addition to this, the victim faces anxiety because ‘he or she is having the wind knocked out of him or her’.

Another symptom of solar plexus syndrome is the sudden blow directed to the person’s stomach or when the victim falls onto the back. When such blows happen, the diaphragm becomes contracted and then goes into spasm thus making it almost impossible to inhale and exhale effectively. However, when the diaphragm relaxes, the breathing process becomes easier again.


Being winded or getting a solar plexus syndrome is commonly realized in contact sports such as rugby, netball and even in ball sports like soccer. In addition to this, solar plexus syndrome is also experienced in martial arts like tae kwon do, karate among others when a participant falls to the floor.

WINDED Treatment

When a person becomes winded, it is advisable that he or she sits in a crouched position in order to enable the muscles to relax. Consequently, the patient should remain calm by taking slow and deep breaths as this will decrease the pain of the sudden forceful impact that has been experienced in the abdomen. If the condition does not improve within a period of ten-to-fifteen minutes, the victim should seek the attention of a general practitioner as that could be a case of further injury such as that of a collapsed lung or even a fractured rib. The doctor should diagnose prescribe treatment accordingly.

WINDED Prevention

In order to prevent the occurrence of solar plexus in individuals, certain lifestyle changes should be adhered to. Such lifestyle activities are aimed at improving health and reducing the vulnerability of people getting winded. They include the following: getting active. Individuals should always strive to perform exercises that keep them active such as walking routinely, swimming and even riding bicycles and horses. However, such exercises should be gradual.

Besides, people should maintain a good diet rich in vitamins and minerals. Drinking plenty of water is also a useful lifestyle change that improves health and keeps the body hydrated. Reduce caffeinated drinks and above all, reduce the amount of sugar intake.

Sufficient rest is necessary besides wearing protective dresses and avoiding stresses. Should the condition worsen and if the impact persists, it is important to seek medical attention from a general practitioner.

Causes and cures of Jones fracture

December 27th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in Broken bones and Fractures - (0 Comments)
Jones fracture

Jones fracture

The fracture of fifth metatarsal bone is known as Jones fracture. Sir Robert Jones first described this specific fracture so it’s named after him. It is also known as the dancer’s fracture as a lot of people encounter it while dancing. The fracture usually occurs at the base of the fifth metatarsal. Due to its many similar aspects, the Jones fracture is confused with the sprain; hence a thorough diagnosis should be performed to diagnose it. Unfortunately the healing time of Jones fracture gets prolonged as there is less blood supply to this area. Surgery is performed to correct it in routine.  If it is not addressed, the problem may become chronic and can become more severe in some later stage of age, so treat it as early as you know about it.

What are causes of Jones fracture?

The application of the repetitive stress on the foot such as during some sports or physical activity like dancing causes the fracture most often. Overusing the foot is also a risk factor for having Jones fracture. The direct traumas such as fall of a heavy object on foot can also result in such fracture. The sudden forceful twisting of foot or ankle produces the Jones fracture. In short, inversion injuries are main culprits for breaking of fifth metatarsal bone.

Symptoms of Jones fracture:

The major signs and symptoms of Jones fracture are:

  • Severe pain
  • Inflammation
  • Redness of overlying skin
  • Swelling
  • Bruising
  • Hurting in walking
  • Difficulty in moving foot
  • Tenderness

Diagnosing the Jones fractures:

The doctor might ask about the recent physical activities, when you approach him. He will also perform a general physical examination of the foot to check the symptoms of the fracture. Usage of imaging techniques like x-rays is a must in this case. X-rays film will confirm the fracture and will also help locating it. In some complex cases, more advanced techniques like MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may be used.

Treatment options for Jones fracture:

The treatment is not very easy for the Jones fracture unfortunately due to some reasons. The blood supply to this area is less and the peroneus brevis muscle is pulling it always so bones parts don’t fuse together in a good manner. Treatment may include the non-surgical or the surgical methods.

Non-surgical treatment:

The non-invasive options for curing Jones fracture include the casting, splints or use of the walking boot. Most of the times, these techniques work thus, surgery is not required. The foot movements should be limited to as much as possible. Weight should not be applied on the foot as it will again cause the bones to split away. The anti-inflammatory drugs can be taken to reduce the tenderness, inflammation and pain in the fracture site. Casting is usually the best method to heal the Jones fractures as it minimizes the foot movements and helps the healing of fracture. The healing by casting can take a long time.

Surgical Treatment:

It is relatively a rapid method to get cured. A small screw is used to put the broken bone pieces together and they join after a passage of time. Surgery is minor and treatment is fast.

Sexual Assault

December 2nd, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in Abdominal Problems Treatment - (0 Comments)
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Sexual assault, also called sexual abuse, is any unlawful sexual contact that consists of applying force to a person without his/ her consent or imposing such contact to a person who is unable to give consent due to physical or mental disabilities or age. Sexual assault is from different from rape, whereas the latter is a type of the former. Other types of sexual assault include attempted rape, incest or sexual contact with a child, exposing own body to another person, malicious body touching one’s self or making another person touch one’s body, and watching and photographing another person in sexual situations.

It is astounding to find out that statistics show that one out of every four Canadian women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetime, wherein half of the assaults occur against women under the age of 16. Fifty-one percent of Canadian women have said that they have experienced at least one incident of physical or sexual violence since reaching 16 years of age. Usually, these sexual assaults are done by persons who know their victims, whether as an acquaintance, or family friend, or relative, or even own partners. But it can also be done by strangers. (Source: Sexual Assault Center of Hamilton Ontario, Canada)

What are the Symptoms Exhibited by Victims of Sexual Assault?

Most women do not report cases of sexual assault as they fear shame and judgment. However, it is necessary to seek medical and mental-health care for victims of sexual assault. It is noted that the earlier the treatment, the better the recovery time. Symptoms of victims of sexual assault include:

  • Depression
  • Fear and anxiety
  • Withdrawal from family and friends
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder

What is the Treatment for Sexual Assault Victims?

The following steps are recommended to be done immediately for a person who is a victim of sexual assault:

  • Get away from the attacked and find a safe place that you can stay in until help arrives. Call the local emergency number and report the case. If one is unsure of the number, call a trusted person.
  • Do not tamper with evidence. Protect any possible evidence by not changing clothes or cleaning any part of the body.
  • Go to an emergency room to prevent any unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Traces of the perpetrator may also be collected such as, clothing fibre, hair strands, saliva, and semen.
  • Calm and comfort the victim. Assure the victim that this was not his/ her fault in any way. Ongoing emotional support can be very helpful for sexually assaulted victims.

How can Sexual Assault be prevented?

Although it can never be guaranteed, taking several precautions can reduce risks of being sexually assaulted. These include:

  • Do not drink beyond one’s alcohol limits. About a third of all cases involve alcohol intoxication.
  • Avoid leaving social events with someone you just met. Fifty percent of all rapes are date rapes. Learn about date rape drugs that are often used.
  • Park cars in well-lighted areas.
  • Always keep the home and car doors locked and ready the keys when approaching the door to save time staying outside.
  • Look for signs that one is in an unhealthy, abusive relationship.

To learn how to properly approach and give support to victims of sexual assault, enrol in First Aid Training and CPR courses to be prepared of future incidences.

First Aid Management for Drug Allergies

November 26th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in Allergies - (0 Comments)

Drug allergies occur when the immune system makes an abnormal reaction to a particular drug or medication. It is when the immune system mistakes the drug as a harmful substance trying to infect the body. An allergic reaction may occur anytime even if the drug has been taken numerous times before and there was no reaction prior to the first allergic reaction. An allergic reaction may occur after the immune system of the body produces an antibody called IgE against the particular medication.

Drug Allergies

Drug Allergies

The next time the drug is taken, the IgE will communicate with the white blood cells to produce histamine, which causes the group of symptoms associated with allergic reactions.

Majority of the drug-related symptoms are not considered as true drug allergies, as the immune system is not involved. Drug allergy and non-allergic drug reaction often produce similar symptoms thus they are easily confused with one another. However, both drug allergy and non-allergic drug reactions are called an adverse drug event and have to be diagnosed by a doctor. Some cases may lead to anaphylaxis, a severe form of allergic reaction that is considered a medical emergency.

Most Common Drug Allergies

Almost any drug can result to an adverse drug event, including both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Sometimes, it is a particular substance or component in a drug that can lead to an allergic reaction such as, egg proteins, dyes, and peanuts.

  • Penicillin and other related antibiotics (usually containing sulfonamides)
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Insulin
  • Sulfa drugs
  • Iodinated x-ray contrast dyes*
  • Aspirin, ibuprofen and other pain medications*
  • High blood pressure drugs*
  • In rare cases, vaccines

*causes non-allergic adverse reactions

Symptoms of Drug Allergies

Most drug allergies result to minor symptoms. They rarely progress to anaphylaxis, which can be severe and life-threatening.

  • Skin rashes
  • Hives
  • Itching of the eyes and/ or the skin
  • Swollen lips, tongue or face
  • Wheezing

Symptoms of anaphylaxis are the following:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Confusion
  • Palpitations
  • Quick pulse
  • Decreased blood pressure

First Aid Management for Drug Allergies

For most cases of drug allergies, especially if it is the first attack, seek emergency medical help or ask someone to bring the casualty to the emergency room for a checkup. Treatment will vary depending on the symptoms that manifest. Most treatment is aimed at relieving of symptoms and preventing further reaction in the body.

  • In minor reactions:
    • Take OTC antihistamines. Make sure it is approved by the doctor.
    • Advise the person to take cool showers and to apply cold compress. Rest in a cool room and wear loose clothes.
    • Do not use strong soaps, detergents and other chemicals.
  • In serious reactions:
    • Corticosteroids may be given in the hospital, either orally or through injection.
  • In anaphylaxis:
    • Seek medical care as soon as possible. Epinephrine may be injected and hospital care may be required to stabilize condition.

Disclaimer: The information given above should not be used for medical diagnosis or medical advice. To learn how to treat drug allergies and other allergic reactions, join in First Aid Training. Join in CPR courses to learn proper CPR in severe cases of drug allergies or in anaphylaxis.

ACL Tear

November 20th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in First Aid Traning - (0 Comments)

The anterior cruciate ligament of commonly abbreviated as ACL is one of the primary stabilizing structures that support the knee providing for its forward and backward motion of the femur and tibia and injury to this supporting ligament is known as ACL tear which is a very common sport related injury that affects many athletes. This ligament crosses in the center of the knee and injury usually occurs when the foot is firmly planted with the knee being hyper-extended and the person suddenly twists his/her torso and femur.

Ice Pack for Knee Injuries

Ice Pack for Knee Injuries

The individual who suffers an ACL tear typically reports a “popping” sound or feeling a tearing sensation upon the sudden twisting motion immediately preceding the injury. If the individual experiences significant swelling of the affected joint within two to four hours after the injury, the anterior cruciate ligament may be suspected and the clinical symptoms progress within the first 24 hours and the patient experiences acute pain, joint instability and discomfort when moving and ambulating.

Immediate emergency treatment of ACL tear

Immediate post injury management and care include the RICE technique (rest, application of ice, compression and elevating the injured extremity). The joint is assessed and evaluated for fracture of the bone as well as any other associated injury to the supporting structures of the joint. Joint effusion and hemarthrosis require joint aspiration and wrapping with compression elastic dressing to help minimize the swelling and relieve the individual of the discomfort and pain.

Surgical intervention of ACL tear

Treatment usually depends on the severity of the ACL tear and the effects of the injury as well as the impact on the person on his activities of daily living. Early supporting treatment involves the application of a brace, physical therapy and avoidance of strenuous physical activities that would stress out the affected joint such as running and jumping. Surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament can follow after near-normal joint function and range of motion is achieved which generally involves tendon repair and grafting. This is usually performed as an ambulatory arthroscopic surgery, a procedure in which the surgeon uses an arthroscope to visualize and repair the damage of the anterior cruciate ligament. The best surgical candidates for this type of procedure are younger more active patients however, older and less active patients may choose to undergo with this procedure as well.

Recovery from ACL tear

After surgery, the patient is normally prescribed with oral opiod analgesics, NSAIDs and cryotherapy (a cooling pad incorporated in the post operative dressing). The patient is taught on how to monitor his/her neurovascular status of the affected extremity, proper postoperative wound care and the immediate need to report and signs of complications. Exercises such as ankle pumps, quadriceps sets and hamstring sets are encouraged during early stages of the postoperative recovery period. The nurse should reinforce instructions and health care teaching regarding weight-bearing limitations, exercise restrictions and the use of a knee brace or immobilizing aid to allow for uninterrupted healing. Physical therapy is encouraged so that the patient can gradually gain back his/her full range of motion and weight bearing capabilities. Rehabilitation and recover after an ACL tear typically takes six months to an entire year.

Corticosteroids Overdose

November 13th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in First Aid Traning - (0 Comments)

Corticosteroids overdose occurs when an individual takes in more than the recommended dosage of corticosteroids, a type of anti-inflammatory medicine.

Corticosteroids overdose occurs when an individual takes in more than the recommended dosage of corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are a type of anti-inflammatory medications. Corticosteroids may be applied topically, inhaled, ingested or injected, though the most common forms of corticosteroid overdoses occurs with ingestion. Any of these forms can cause corticosteroids overdose, whether accidentally or intentionally. The use of corticosteroids has risks of side effects, thus the doctor generally prescribes the lowest possible dosage of corticosteroids to manage the symptoms.

Where Corticosteroids are Found:

The following corticosteroids are sold under a variety of different names, some of which are the following:

  • Alclometasone dipropionate (Delonal)
  • Beclomethasone dipropionate (Diprosone)
  • Betamethasone valerate (Valisone)
  • Clobetasol propionate (Temovate)
  • Clocortolone pivalate (Cloderm)
  • Desoximetasone (Topicort)
  • Flunisolide (AeroBid)
  • Flurandrenolide (Cordran)
  • Hydrocortisone (Cortef)
  • Methylprednisolone (Medrol)
  • Mometasone furoate (Elocon)
  • Prednisolone sodium phosphate (Pred Fonte)
  • Prednisone (Deltasone)
  • Triamcinolone acetonide (Aristocort)

Poisonous Ingredients Leading to Corticosteroids Overdose

Corticosteroids can include a range of potential poisonous ingredients, which can include:

  • Betamethasone
  • Clobetasol propionate
  • Cortisone
  • Desonide
  • Dexamethasone
  • Diflorasone
  • Flunisolide
  • Fluocinonide
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Methylprednisolone
  • Prednisone
  • Triamcinolone

Forms of Corticosteroids Overdose

There are different ways to overdose corticosteroids. Some of the forms include:

  • Ingestion of pills or liquids (most common)
  • Injection of formulas to the skin, joints, muscles or veins
  • Topical application of creams and ointments on the skin
  • Inhalation of forms into the nose or lungs

Signs and Symptoms of Corticosteroids Overdose

Some of common signs and symptoms of corticosteroids overdose may include:

  • Itching or burning skin
  • Dry skin
  • Swelling in the lower legs, ankles or feet
  • Muscle weakness
  • High blood pressure
  • Cessation of menstrual cycle
  • Deafness
  • Sleepiness
  • Weakness
  • Nervousness
  • Psychosis
  • Depression
  • Convulsions
  • Worsening of health conditions

First Aid Management for Corticosteroids Overdose

Treatment for corticosteroids overdose will involve removing the remaining beta blocker in the system. Some first aid trips recommended in cases of beta blockers overdose include:

  • Immediately call for emergency medical service if the individual has collapsed or stopped breathing.
  • Initiate CPR if the individual has weak breathing or is not breathing at all.
  • If no symptoms are present, call Poison Control Centre immediately and they will advice on how to continue.
  • Do not force the individual to vomit, nor should food or beverages be given unless approved by the Poison Control Centre.
  • Bring the overdosed corticosteroid drug, empty bottle, or cream to the emergency room or doctor’s office or give to the emergency team.

Disclaimer: This article does not provide medical advice and should not be substituted for formal training. The information given should not be used for self-diagnosis. Seek medical attention when necessary. It is important to recognise medical emergencies at all times to avoid complications from developing. To learn more about to how to properly manage corticosteroids overdose, enrol in First Aid Courses and CPR Courses with St Mark James Training.

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How to Provide Trauma First Aid

November 8th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in First Aid Traning - (0 Comments)

Trauma first aid not only refers to disaster treatment provided for victims that need immediate physical care but also immediate aid to mental, psychological and spiritual aspects of the survivor.

Trauma first aid is considered a fast and effective non-conventional approach in treating victims of large scale calamities, natural disasters and even terrorist attacks. The effects of such stressful and traumatic events are not just limited to a momentary period following the event but the disruptive after effects can persist and go on for several months and possibly even years. The effects experiencing physical pain and mental anguish contribute to further trauma, hence highlighting the very essence and importance of early stabilization and appropriateness of intervention is the priority of trauma first aid. A single but brief exposure to such overwhelming disastrous events can lead to an imbalance of a supposedly normal functioning individual into an emotional roller coaster of physical and psychological suffering and post-traumatic stress disorders.

What is trauma first aid?

Trauma first aid is an approach in which responders holistically treat victims of disaster events. Trauma research is increasingly becoming the mainstream approach in linking the mind and body on how it must be managed and better understood with regards to the biological basis of the traumatic experiences along with the physiologic symptoms that might arise from the extraordinary stressful experience brought about by large scale natural or man-made disasters. When the basic survival instincts take control of a person’s entire mind and body it basically strives to preserve the integrity of the body that might even go over extreme physiologic responses which are very detrimental in the long run even after the extreme trauma has already subsided. When basic survival responses and varying states of dis-regulation persists, such symptoms can have incapacitating effects that hampers daily social interaction and adaptation.

The Value of Trauma first aid

Trauma first aid has so much benefit to offer survivors of disaster events since it approaches survivors in the most holistic manner by drawing out verbal and emotional processing wherein victims are not only treated by their physical injuries but more importantly are given additional emotional support by allowing verbal processing of emotions regarding the traumatic experience victims have recently experienced. Trauma first aid works by correcting the dis-regulation and chronic effects of unhealthy coping which can both aggravate psychological and somatic symptoms.

In disaster scenarios, in which survivors are often difficult to maintain and more than a single session of debriefing, such brief interventions are very important. A treatment that can be effective in lesser but effective means can be very beneficial in providing stabilization to more victims in less time spent per individual but has effective and measurable results.

Trauma first aid Intervention Protocol

Trauma first aid healing is a well structured, manual-based protocol Trauma First Aidintervention that mainly focuses on self-regulation (restoring equilibrium to the body) and maintaining a healthy coping mechanism by working with effective emotional response and cognitive processes. A health care provider must not only be skillfully trained in treating the physiologic aspects of a victim of a major disaster but more importantly be able to provide social support by educating affected individuals about the physiological nature of the trauma experience, how it manifests and how to cope with the effects. These multifaceted approach are among the most important concepts of trauma first aid intervention.

Responding in Radiation Accidents

September 30th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in First Aid Traning | How to be Prepared - (0 Comments)

Responding in Radiation AccidentsRadiation refers to the transmission of energy. This can include ultraviolet light, nuclear energy, sound, heat, and x-rays. Radiation accidents often occur in industrial workplaces especially those that involve handling of radioactive materials or radioactive waste materials. It can also occur as part of acts of terror.

Volunteer first aider, paramedics and EMTs may be called up to respond in radiation accidents. You should know how to provide first aid in such unique situations to avoid putting yourself in danger. As a first aider, you should always remember that your role is to provide first aid procedures. You do not have the adequate training to handle and contain radiation.

Industrial experts should be available at the scene to lead the rescue efforts. If you are the first to respond, call the local authorities or, if it involves workplaces, the company. Note important details such as the type of radiation involved, the number of victims, and the injuries sustained. Look for radiation hazard labels. These labels usually have propeller sign on yellow background and include the radioactive material identification number. Notify the authorities so that they can send in the right equipment and experts immediately. If the authorities instruct you to leave the scene, do so immediately and safely. Stay in a safe place. Concrete or thick metal walls, construction equipment, heavy vehicles, and earth banks offer some additional protection or shielding.

Do not attempt to initiate rescue efforts if you have no adequate training and protective equipment. It is recommended that you wait for the experts to arrive and to direct your activities.

Emergency care and management of radiation accidents is an advanced first aid skill. It requires completing an advanced training in order to ensure your personal safety. Prolonged exposure to radiation can cause changes in the body cells. If enough radiation is absorbed by the body, serious health complications may result. In fact, some types of radioactive energies, at a certain dosage, can lead to death.

Your duties at the scene of aradiation accident should include:

  1. Protecting yourself from exposure to radiation.
  2. Noting any hazard information or labels that indicate a radiation hazard.
  3. Calling local disaster and emergency services for expert assistance.
  4. Providing first aid procedures you are trained to do, given that you have go signal from the experts, adequate protection, and appropriate equipment.
  5. Providing first aid for victims who have been decontaminated.
  6. Helping in crowd control and management of the scene.
  7. Helping prevent further spread of radiation by controlling contaminate objects.

Before emergency care can be given, the patient should be decontaminated. If you have no training in decontaminating radiation, let the experts do so. The patient should also be moved to the safe zone before you provide care.

How to Treat Sun Poisoning

September 17th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in Poisonings - (0 Comments)

Most people cannot wait to go outside to soak up the sun after a

long, barren winter. The sun has many countless benefits on earth. For starters, the sun makes life possible on Earth. Sun is the primary source of energy of all living things. Moreover, moderate doses of sun activate vitamin D production in the body. Although despite the necessity of the sun to vitamin D synthesis, it is necessary to limit exposure of the skin to sunlight. It is known to many that overexposure to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays leads to sunburn. However, a more severe form of photodermatitis, or an abnormal skin response to sunlight, is sun poisoning.

The earth’s ozone layer keeps these harmful UV rays from entering earth, however, not all is filtered out. Due to the thinning ozone layer, more and more UV rays pass through this layer, causing more harm than ever on the skin. When the UV rays permeate through the outer layer of the skin, it causes damage to the living cells found beneath. This usually causes sunburn, but the more severe reaction is sun poisoning.

The body produces melanin, the determinant pigment that determines eye, hair and skin color. Two types of melanin are produced in the body, eumelanin and pheomelanin. The former is commonly found in dark-skinned people, turning their skin brown and acts as natural protection from sunburns, whereas the latter commonly causes the skin to redden, and is thus frequently found in fair-skinned people. Hence, fair-skinned people are more prone to sun poisoning. Interestingly enough, it is said that redheads are most susceptible to skin damage after extended sun exposure.

Some of signs and symptoms include headache, dizziness or fainting, nausea, chills, blisters, quick pulse and breathing, blisters, dehydration, shock and unconsciousness. A person is also in danger of electrolyte imbalance if there is sun poisoning. This is aside from the painful, red and burning feeling of the skin that is normally associated with sunburn. If dehydration, shock or unconsciousness is observed, seek medical attention immediately. Furthermore, if there is extreme pain or vomiting or a fever develops of over 104°F, it is better to head to an emergency room. IV fluids may be administered to reinstate hydration or oral steroids may be prescribed to lessen inflammation.

To treat sun poisoning, increased efforts to cool the body down and stay hydrated. Take frequent cool (not cold) baths. Drink plenty of fluids, such as water, fruit juices and sports drinks, and avoid drinking caffeinated drinks as they as diuretics. Don’t rub the skin, only patting it, with wet cloth. If possible, stay in a cool environment until symptoms alleviate to avoid further damage on the skin.

Sun Poisoning                It is better to prevent sun poisoning rather than to treat it. If exposure to the sun is expected, apply generous amounts of sunscreen and protective clothing, such as hats. Sunscreen of at least SPF 30 and broad spectrum is generally recommended.

Although it may be less common than sunburn, sun poisoning is more severe and would require home treatment right away in order to not exacerbate symptoms. Through St Mark James programs, first aid training is made available to educate the lay community on how to treat and ease symptoms for many various medical situations. Moreover, CPR courses are also offered to participants who want to learn the most up to date CPR training for emergency medical situations.

Femur Fracture

August 17th, 2013 | Posted by Julius Mark in How to be Prepared - (0 Comments)

What is a femur fracture?

Femur, the longest and strongest bone of human body, contributes the skeleton of the thigh. Since femur is the strongest bone with a lot of muscle bulk veiling it, only hard forces (for instance car crashes, falling from heights) can cause it to break away.

Types of femur fracture:

Femur is divided into different parts anatomically, which means fracture at a specific point will give the fracture specific name; following femur fractures occur commonly:

–          Fracture of femoral head

–          Fracture of femoral neck

–          Subtrochanteric fracture

–          Fracture of the shaft of femur

The first three fractures are usually associated with hip fractures and involve the proximal part of the bone.

A sharp thrust may cause dislocation of hip bone, leading especially to the fracture of the femoral head.

Subtrochanteric fracture involves the shaft of the femur immediately beneath the greater and lesser trochanter.

Fractures of shaft of femur:                                         

The fracture of the shaft of the femur is classified into three types:

–          Type 1: spiral or transverse

The bone breaks either spirally or in a linear pattern, completely separated from the other part.

–          Type 2: comminuted

In this type the bone breaks away into little fragments.

–          Type 3: open

Open fractures are those in which the bone breaks completely with piercing the surrounding tissue; that includes skin and muscles. This type may alternatively be known as: compound fracture.

Other types of fractures are:

Greenstick fracture: a fracture in which bone doesn’t completely separate from the other part. The fracture in turn spans only half way through the bone. This fracture is therefore an incomplete fracture.

Femur fracture Causes:

–          High energy collisions

–          Car or motorbike crashes

–          Gunshot wounds (uncommon)

–          Free fall with direct landing on legs causing an upward thrust (associated with other fractures of lower limb)

–          Osteoporosis or osteopenia

–          Low force incidents- with nutritional deficiencies (weaker bones)

Femur fracture Symptoms and investigations:

The symptoms include:

–          Sharp pain

–          Deformed bone

–          Bruises (at times)

–          If open fracture occurs, the bone may itself be seen.

For further investigations and confirmations the doctor may ask you to get an x-ray or CT (Computed Tomography) done.

Femur fracture Complications:

Breakage of a femur bone can cause sharp ends to sever the surrounding blood vessels. This may lead to formation of clots. The clots may detach and run in the blood as emboli. These disseminating emboli can cause further complications by plugging into small blood vessels of body and blocking their blood flow leading to ischemia.

The sharp ends of bone may also damage the nerves of environs.

Infections, fat embolism, non- or mal- alignment are some other complications.

Femur fracture Treatment and recovery:

Treatment depends on severity of injury and maybe surgical or non surgical.

The femur fractures usually involve surgical treatment. If, however, the Femur Fracturebone has suffered a less severe injury, non surgical treatment might be considered. The non surgical treatment involves nothing but a cast that is wrapped around the injured area.

2-3 month strict rest and immobility are important to let the bone settle in its place and avoid mal-alignment.

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